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The Sumerian King List 

The Sumerian King List is an ancient manuscript, originally recorded in the Sumerian language, listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. It records the location of "official" kingship, along with the rulers and their supposed reign lengths. Kingship was believed to have been handed down by the gods, and could be transferred from one city to another, reflecting perceived hegemony in the region.



Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments Predynastic kings 30th century BCE or earlier 

"After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years.

Alulim 8 sars (28,800 years) Alalngar 10 sars (36,000 years) 

 "Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira."

En-men-lu-ana 12 sars (43,200 years) En-men-gal-ana 8 sars (28,800 years) Dumuzid, the Shepherd  "the shepherd" 10 sars (36,000 years) 

"Then Bad-tibira fell and the kingship was taken to Larag."

En-sipad-zid-ana 8 sars (28,800 years) 

"Then Larag fell and the kingship was taken to Zimbir."
 
En-men-dur-ana5 sars and 5 ners (21,000 years)   
"Then Zimbir fell and the kingship was taken to Shuruppag."

Ubara-Tutu 5 sars and 1 ner (18,600 years)  "Then the flood swept over."



After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kic, a total of 23 kings would rule, they ruled for 24510 years,3 months, and 3 1/2 days.


A total of 39 kings ruled for 14409 + X years, 3 months and 3 1/2 days, 4 times in Kic.
A total of 22 kings ruled for 2610 + X years, 6 months and 15 days, 5 times in Unug.
A total of 12 kings ruled for 396 years, 3 times in Urim.
A total of 3 kings ruled for 356 years, once in Awan.
A total of 1 king ruled for 420 years, once in Hamazi. 
A total of 12 (?) kings ruled for 197 (?) years, once in Agade.
A total of 21 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 23) kings ruled for 125 years and 40 days (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 99 years), once in the army of Gutium. A total of 11 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 16) kings ruled for 159 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 226) years, once in Isin.

There are 11 cities, cities in which the kingship was exercised. A total of 134 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 139) kings, who altogether ruled for 28876 + X (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 3443 + X) years.
Details are from the article Sumerian Kings list


Akkadian was a civilization and historical region in southern Iraq (Mesopotamia). It was one of the earliest known civilizations in the world and is known as the Cradle of Civilization.

The Anunnaki (also transcribed as: Anunnaku, Ananaki and other variations) are a group of Sumerian, Akkadian and Babylonian deities. The name is variously written "da-nuna", "da-nuna-ke4-ne", or "da-nun-na", meaning something to the effect of 'those of royal blood' or 'princely offspring'.



The Anunnaki appear in the Babylonian creation myth, Enuma Elish. In the late version magnifying Marduk, after the creation of mankind, Marduk divides the Anunnaki and assigns them to their proper stations, three hundred in heaven, three hundred on the earth. In gratitude, the Anunnaki, the "Great Gods", built Esagila, the splendid: "They raised high the head of Esagila equaling Apsu. Having built a stage-tower as high as Apsu, they set up in it an abode for Marduk, Enlil, Ea." then they built their own shrines.

According to later Babylonian myth, the Anunnaki were the children of Anu and Ki, brother and sister gods, themselves the children of Anshar and Kishar (Skypivot and Earthpivot, the Celestial poles), who in turn were the children of Lahamu and Lahmu ("the muddy ones"), names given to the gatekeepers of the Abzu temple at Eridu, the site at which the creation was thought to have occurred. Finally, Lahamu and Lahmu were the children of Tiamat and Abzu.

The head of the Anunnaki council was the Great Anu of Uruk and the other members were his offspring. His place was taken by Enlil, (En=lord, lil=wind,air), who at some time was thought to have separated heaven and earth. 




An ongoing dispute between Enlil of Nippur and his half brother Enki of Eridu regarding the legitimacy of Enlil's assumption of leadership in addition to being the God of fresh water, he was also God of wisdom and magic, regarded by some as an alchemist  Enki, (En=lord, Ki=Earth). 

When the Igigi went on strike and refused to continue to work maintaining the universe, on the Shappatu (Hebrew: שבת, Eng: Shabbath) Enki created humankind to assume responsibility for the tasks the Gods no longer performed.

Nippur was one of the most ancient of all the Sumerian cities. It was the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone.

These are a some of the sentences copied more or less directly from the Atrahasis to the Gilgamesh epic:

Atrahasis Epic
Gilgamesh Epic, tablet XI
"Wall, listen to me." Atrahasis III,i,20
"Wall, pay attention" Gilgamesh XI,22
"Like the apsu you shall roof it" Atrahasis III,i,29
"Like the apsu you shall roof it" Gilgamesh XI,31
"I cannot live in [your city]" Atrahasis III,i,47
"I cannot live in your city" Gilgamesh XI,40
"Ninurta went forth making the dikes [overflow]" Atrahasis U rev,14
"Ninurta went forth making the dikes overflow" Gilgamesh XI,102
"One person could [not] see another" Atrahasis III,iii,13
"One person could not see another" Gilgamesh XI,111
"For seven days and seven nights came the storm" Atrahasis III,iv,24
"Six days and seven nights the wind and storm flood" Gilgamesh XI,127
"He offered [a sacrifice]" Atrahasis III,v,31
"And offered a sacrifice" Gilgamesh XI,155
"the lapis around my neck" Atrahasis III,vi,2
"the lapis lazuli on my neck" Gilgamesh XI,164
"How did man survive the destruction?" Atrahasis III,vi,10
"No man was to survive the destruction" Gilgamesh XI,173


Jezekiel, Ezekiel

1:5 Also out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance; they had the likeness of a man.

1:6 And every one had four faces, and every one had four wings.

1:27 And I saw as the colour of amber, as the appearance of fire round about within it, from the appearance of his loins even upward, and from the appearance of his loins even downward, I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and it had brightness round about.





The cities of Sumer were the first to practice intensive, year-round agriculture (from ca. 5300 BC). However, such agriculture appeared independently in multiple civilizations close to the same time as Sumer. The surplus of storable food created by this economy allowed the population to settle in one place instead of migrating after crops and grazing land.


It also allowed for a much greater population density, and in turn required an extensive labor force and division of labor. This organization led to the development of writing (ca. 3500 BC).

Where these beings from our sky’s?  In the Anunnaki King's List they are sometimes depicted as humanoid.


At other times they are bird-headed with wings. Often they are Reptilian in appearance especially when depicted as warriors, even decribed as ‘giant’ people, as seen in my recent article. 

In the book of Enoch it is stated: Chapter 6 

1 And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto them beautiful and comely daughters. 

2 And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another: ’Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men and beget us children. 

7 And these are the names of their leaders: Samlazaz, their leader, Araklba, Rameel, Kokablel, Tamlel, Ramlel, Danel, Ezeqeel, Baraqijal, Asael, Armaros, Batarel, Ananel, Zaqel, Samsapeel, Satarel, Turel, Jomjael, Sariel.

8 These are their chiefs of tens.

Chapter 7. 

2 And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells: 

3 Who consumed all the acquisitions of men. 

4 And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against them and devoured mankind. 

5 And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another’s flesh, and drink the blood. 

6 Then the earth laid accusation against the lawless ones.


 1 ell is about 0.30 meter so these Giants were indeed Giants their length was about 900 meters, the Greek translation speaks of 300 cubits (1 cubit is 0,45 meter) so even in the Greek tradition these Giants had the respectable length of 135 meters.




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